Create With Purpose

Adobe Youth Voices Develops the technology skills among youth, providing cutting edge tools and breakthrough learning experiences from creating video, multimedia, digital art, web, animation, and audio to express their voices in society and prepare for 21st centery employment with critical thinking, innovation, collaboration and communication skills. more

June 18, 2011

How to create effective advertisements for youth?

When creating advertisements for youth , it is important to do some background study on the nature of advertising and its principles. The kind of audience you may want to impact with advertising and the message you aim to deliver are both important.

Media Literacy Key Concepts
Today's Youth are more media aware and have access to media and information to evaluate your advertisement , product or service. The five key concepts are
  • All media messages are constructed.
  • Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules.
  • Different people experience the same messages differently.
  • Media have embedded values and points of view.
  • Media messages are constructed to gain profit and/or power or create an impact or change.
Advertising: introduction
Advertising is non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services through a media

Key Advertising Objectives

To inform - e.g. tell about a new product or a service
Arrival of a new product, Improvement of a product, Inform of a project, Create awareness

To persuade - e.g. to encourage change of a behavior (quite smoking, change a brand)

To remind - e.g. remind about a product, project or a service (for repeated buying)
To inform new locations product might be available

Determining the key Messages
  • The clarity of the advertising message is more important than amount spend on advertising.
  • The advertising message must be carefully targeted to impact the target audience.
  • The Advertising message must be
  1. Meaningful - viewers should find the message relevant
  2. Distinctive - capture the viewer's attention
  3. Believable - a difficult task as consumers doubt the truth of advertising in general
  4. Simple - Should be understandable at first view
  5. Clear - The message should be clear and concise
Decide which Advertising Media to Use

(a) Reach - what proportion of the target audience will be exposed  ?
(b) Frequency - how many times will the target audience be exposed ?
(c) Media Impact - here, if the target audience sees the message - will it have most impact?
(d) Cost - What would be the cost of media ?

Timing of the Advertising
  •  What is the best timing for advertising? (Time of the day, Days, Season)
Evaluate the results of the Advertising
  • What are the effects of your communication ?
  • Has the intended message being communicated effectively to the intended audience?
  • What results the advertisement generated ?
  • What is the overall impact of advertising?

Message Creation Factors
  • Target Audience – The age, sex, location, attitudes, interests,  activities, interests, opinions)
  • How they live and reasons for their choice
  • Opportunities available to influence choice
  • Type of Media Used – Television, print, Internet used to deliver the message
  • Product Factors – Complex products require a different message than simpler products.

    familiar product and a new product will have different messages.

    If not distinctive - audience not interested in product info - message should not stress on attributes
  • Product Involvement - If high involvement, product info critical  - stress on product attributes.
  • Overall Objective – Immediate impact on sales or building initial awareness
Message Structure
  • The Appeal – The underlying idea that captures the attention of a message receiver. (emotional, fearful, humorous, and sexual)
  • Value Proposition - Message contains a reason for customers to be interested in the offer (emphasizes the benefits)

  • Slogan – To help position the product in a customer’s mind and distinguish it from competitive offerings
  • Content - The advertisements will contain a word or phrase that is repeated across several different messages and different media.)
Target Audience
  •    What are their interests,  activities, interests, opinions)
  •    How they live and reasons for their choice
  •    Opportunities available to influence choice


Advertiser must know:
  • what are the impat attributes that would create interest of the audience ?
  • what the product can and cannot do ?
  • how to inform the benefits ?
If low involvement, product info not critical - stress on mood & have repeated exposures

Mood in ad
  • Generate interest in ad itself  - liking of ad transferred to liking of brand through repeated exposure
  • Colors, Images and placement of the ad. A sports goods ad should be placed in sports page.

  • Evaluate your competition - How they will react?
  • If the competition is intense create a greater need for distinctive image
  • Distinctive image is a share of audience mind
  • When choice arises, advertised brand is evoked

Product Positioning
The art of fitting the product or service to one or more segments of the broad
market in such a way as to set it meaningfully apart from competition

Images are powerful tools of social awareness
We should be aware of the “bigger picture” when selecting images for the ad

Techniques of Presentation

1. Appeals to the audience emotions of
  • the need to be accepted
  • the need to be in an elite group
  • the need for change
  • the need for excitement
  • the need be attracted
2. Associations
Associations are positive and rely on the visual image in the ad, and text enforces the association.
  • of the wealth / luxury
  • of the fame / prestige
  • of the happiness
  • of the success
  • of the youthfulness / health
  • of the excitement / adventure / risk
  • of the romance / love

3. Fear Tactics
  • the fear of death / aging / sickness
  • the fear of failure
  • the fear of poverty
  • the fear of violence
  • the fear of embarrassments
The visual, the text, the layout, and specific details combines to enforce the message,

Evaluating the Advertisement
must ask yourself:
  • Is this ad creating a need?
  • Is this ad associating the product to a positive image?
  • Is this ad working on our personal fears?
Key Questions to answer

  • Why we created this message?
  • What techniques are used to attract the audience?
  • How might different people understand this message?
  • What lifestyles, values, and points of view are represented in or omitted in this message?

Advertising Course

Media Literacy

Youth Marketing Mediums
  • Mobile Marketing (Personalize text messages to get attention)
  • Youth Newspapers and magazines
  • Youth Radio Stations (Most youth listen to radio while their daily routines.)
  • Email Marketing (information to individuals rather than to general groups.)
  • Outdoor Marketing (outdoor posters and billboards in public areas).
  • Youth Clubs (Sponsor tournaments).
  • Flayers (inexpensive to produce and distribute)
  • Online Marketing (advertising on social networking sites.)
Headlines grabs attention
Keep it simple and understandable by choosing the right words that will appeal to your audience.

Images Talk
The image need to be relevant  as well as attract right audience. Even if the image is good and attractive and not relevant will not help your ad. Create various ads using different images and see which one works better.

Your Logo

The general rule is to place your logo at the bottom as ageneral rule. Having a logo on top creates credibility for established brands.

Body Text
Write a body text to attract your audience further.
Once they become interested they would look for is what is this ad about?

Your body text should give them a clear picture of the message that you want to convey to be embedded in their minds, the body copy should not just inform but appeal to their emotions as well.

The call-to-action.
This is the main purpose of your ad to get your target audience to actually do something . The call-to-action statement need to be very clear like a call us, visit this site, email us like action.
Tips for Good Advertisements
1. A good advertisement grabs people at first glance
2. Be Clever and Creative in a positive way
3. Make your ad speak and say something
4. Don’t make your audience think too much
5. Get the message across in a clever way
6. A person should know what the ad is saying as soon as they look at it.
7. Use colors wisely to pop the feelings
8. Every advertisement must convey a message
9. Make your ad stand out and be memorable, be original
10. Give off a feeling or a mood.
11. A good advertisement is one which shows instead of telling.
12. Use Humor which is a useful technique for attracting people to an ad in some cases

June 16, 2011

CYM Videos

Media literacy is the ability to access, analyze, evaluate and create media in a variety of forms.

Core Principles of Media Literacy Education281.72 KB

June 9, 2011

Kandy Zonal School Youth - English Drama Competition 2011

Location Trinty Collage, Kandy
Date 09 June 2011
Pix By Niranjan Meegammana
Shilpa Sayura & Adobe Youth Voices Educator

June 6, 2011

How to Write a Short Film Script

Get your story (put together a story) straight.
Come up with lots of ideas of what you want to happen in the play, movie, or TV show. Create the premise and purpose of that story. What are the circumstances and what are the goals of the stories and main characters involved?

Your characters will drive the action on the stage or screen, so make sure you make them interesting and innovative. It may not be necessary for you to develop all of the characters right away, but some writers need to have everything set out before they can begin working. Find your method and work with it.
  • Create an outline or treatment. Before you begin actually writing dialogue and script, it might help to create a basic roadmap of what will happen in your story so you dont forget. Sketch out a general plan and envision how events will unfold. This should be told in the third-person.

  • Maintain your style. Remember, scripts are all about action and dialogue. Make sure your characters speak realistically, and try not to mix styles of speech and vocabulary too much unless you are going for a certain effect.

    Ensure that different characters have their own 'voice' based on their background, which will affect their word choices and dialect. This will stop your characters from blending into one another.

    Set the scene. Don't forget to include important details such as time of day, setting, and actions of the characters in the scene. These are nearly as important as the dialogue that occurs.

    Format your writing. Skip lines between one character speaking and a different one speaking, especially if you're handwriting it. This will enable those reading the script to distinguish between speakers more easily, and also allow space for notes, or you could just get a screen writing program. There are many formatting tips freely available at

  • Edit yourself. Continually revise your writing, and, if possible, show the script to a friend or adviser who has writing experience and can critique and improve the script as needed. You may also write your script in various ways, introducing people and even in brackets telling the reader what is happening that the narrator is not reading. I.E.) Niranjan walks off the stage or Yamuna closes the door behind him.

  • June 4, 2011

    How a digital camera works?

    The art of photography is seeing and balancing the light. This is done by camera using lens, aperture, shutter and censor.

    1. The light reflecting from an object first goes through the lens. 

    2. The aperture unit placed inside the lens help us control how much light reaches the sensor.

    3. Shutter placed inside the camera has a mechanism to open and close a window for light to travel to sensor. It controls how long the sensor is exposed to the light
    4. The sensor is a very sensitive electronc plate which absorbs light and transform to a pixel with colors.


    Composition and Framing in Photographs

    Good composing of your photographs makes it good photo.

    Rule of Thirds

    The frame of the image is splitd into 9 equally sized rectangles using two vertical and two horizontal lines. The four intersections, created by four line serve as the main points of interest.

    The rule of thirds is an old rule coming from greeks. It applies to more art forms not only photography.
    Rule of thirds suggests to place the subject off the center. The main subject of the photograph is then placed in one of the four locations where the lines intersect. These intersections are marked with red dots in the picture.

    Look for natural frames in the scenery you have.

    Lines and Shapes

    Use lines and shapes to draw the viewer into the picture and guide the eyes to a point that you normally wouldn’t pay so much attention. Consider both symmetrical and asymmetrical lines and shapes

    Empty Space

    Negative space can help simplify your photo to draw attention to a certain point in the photograph.  A common rule of photographing moving objects you need to keep empty space infront than behind it, unless it looks like going to crash.

    Rights of a Photographer

    Photography is recording light entering though a lenze, nothing more.

    Rights of a photographer country to country , so always make sure what laws are in force in the area you do photography.

    Where and What can I photograph?In general you can photograph almost anything in a public place.

    You dont have to take permission to photograph building and parks as well as people that are in public areas.

    When you are on a public property you can photograph private property like someone's garden flowers.

    If you need to photograph on a private property, its better to ask someone for persmission.

    Its not right to photograph someone excessively even in a public place, which might look like invasion of privacy.

    How ever there are exceptions to this ruleMilitary installations or other subjects that can be classed as national security can not be photographed without permission.

    Photographing in public places like dressing rooms, restrooms or people entering their code at the ATM machine counts as invading a person’s privacy.

    In public places you can photograph adults, children, law enforcement officers, accidents, criminal activities, celebrities, airports and train stations.

    What if people question you ?First of all, act politely and stay as calm as possible. You do not need to explain why you are there or what you are photographing. In most cases you do not need to disclose your identity in most countries.
    You do not need to give them your camera/memory card nor do you need to delete the images.

    Unless they have a court order or are arresting you, they have no right to take your equipment.

    If you are asked to delete photographs or asked to hand over your equipment ask for their identity and who they work for.

    Also ask what legal reason they cite for doing this to you.

    How and Where can I use my photographs?If its a photography that you have taken, you have the right to photograph. There are rules and laws surrounding how you publish and distribute your photographs.

    If your photograph is not commercial, i.e. considered art, you have much more rights to publish and use your photograph.

    If you intend to use the photograph in any commercial situation you will need a model release from the model.

    News photographs, even though they can be used to sell newspapers, do not require a model release to be published and sold.

    Sample Model Release

     Phone number
    E-mail address

    For Good and Valuable Consideration I hereby grant permission to
    Please check one:

    [ ] I affirm that I am of age of majority, have read and completely understand the foregoing


    [ ] I affirm that I am the parent/legal guardian of the model, who is a minor, have read and completely understand the foregoing content.


    Date and Place :

    [YOUR NAME] to use my name and the photographs s/he has taken of me in all forms and media for advertising, trade and any other lawful purposes.

    June 3, 2011

    What are Bit map, Raster and Vector Images in Graphics Design?

    Bitmap images
    Called raster images. They use rectangular grid of pixels to represent images. Each pixel is assigned a specific location and color value of RGB. Bitmap images used fore photographs and digital paintings as they can efficiently represent shades and color.

    Bitmap images are resolution-dependent. They contain a fixed number of pixels, therfore lose details when scaled high.

    Bitmap images require large storage space, hence compressed to keep file sizes down.

    Vector graphics Vector graphics made of vector shapes that are made up of lines and curves defined by geometric characteristics. You can freely scale vector graphics without losing detail or clarity, as they are resolution-independent. They maintain crisp edges when resized or printed.

    Vector graphics are the best choice for artwork, such as logos, that will be used at various sizes and in various output media.

    Combining Vector and Raster Graphics
    When combining vector graphics and bitmap images in a graphic.  The artwork on screen isn’t always will not look same in  print.

    When your artwork contains transparency, Photoshop performs a process called flattening before printing or exporting. The default flattening process produces overlapping areas

    Image Resolution The number of pixels per inch (ppi) in a bitmap image, if low will print smaller image with coarse-looking pixels. Using too high a resolution increases the file size without increasing the quality of the printed output, and also slows the printing of the artwork.

    Printer resolution and screen frequency
    The number of ink dots produced per inch (dpi) and the number of lines per inch (lpi) in a halftone screen the image resolution and printer resolution, and screen frequency determines the quality of detail of the print.

    Color channels
    Photoshop images have color channels.  Each channel stores information about color elements in the image. The number of default color channels depends on color mode. Grayscale, Duotone, and Indexed Color mode have one channel. RGB has three; and CMYK images have four. Channels in color images are actually grayscale images that represent each of the color components of an image. For example, an RGB image has separate channels for red, green, and blues color values.

    In addition to color channels, alpha channels, can be added to an image for storing and editing selections as masks.

    Bit depth
    Bit depth specifies how much color information is available for each pixel in an image. The more bits of information per pixel, the more available colors and more accurate color representation. An image with a 1 bit depth of 1 has pixels with two possible values: black and white. An image with a bit depth of 8 has 256, possible values. Grayscale images with a bit depth of 8 have 256 possible gray values.

    RGB images are made of three color channels. An 8‑bit per pixel RGB image has 256 possible values for each channel which means it has over 16 million possible color values. RGB images with 8‑bits per channel (bpc) are sometimes called 24‑bit images (8 bits x 3 channels = 24 bits of data for each pixel).

    Monitor and Image Resolution
    If your monitor resolution and your photo’s pixel dimensions are the same size, the photo will fill the screen when viewed at 100%.
    When preparing images for viewing on‑screen, you should consider the lowest monitor resolution that your photo is likely to be viewed on.

    About printer resolution
    Screen frequencyScreen frequency is the number of printer dots or halftone cells per inch used to print grayscale images or color separations.Screen frequency is measured in lines per inch (lpi), or lines of cells per inch on screen. The higher the resolution of the output device, a higher screen should be used.

    The relationship between image and printer resolutionPrinter resolution is different, but related to image resolution. To print a high quality photo on an inkjet printer, an image resolution of at least 220 ppi should be set.

    ResamplingResampling is changes image data as you change in pixel dimensions or resolution. When you downsample, the number of pixels information is deleted from the image. When you upsample, it increases the number of pixels and their colors are interpolated. Downsampling can reduce image quality and loose sharpness. Applying the Unsharp Mask filter to a resampled image can help refocus the image details.

    Interpolation methods
    Nearest Neighbor - Fast but less precise. Replicates the pixels in an image using containing edges that are not anti-aliased, to preserve hard edges and produce a smaller file.

    Bilinear - A method that adds pixels by averaging the color values of surrounding pixels.Produces medium-quality results.

    Bicubic - A slower but more precise method based on an examination of the values of surrounding pixels. Produces smoother tonal gradations than Nearest Neighbor or Bilinear.

    Bicubic Smoother - A good method to produce smoother results.

    Bicubic Sharper  - Uses Bicubic interpolation with enhanced sharpening.
    Changing an image’s pixel dimensions affects not only its on‑screen size but also its image quality and its printed characteristics.

    Camera RawA camera raw file contains unprocessed, uncompressed grayscale picture data from a digital camera’s image sensor, along with information about how the image was captured. When you shoot JPEG files with your camera, the camera automatically processes the JPEG to enhance and compress the image. You have less control of processing here. 

    To shoot camera raw images, you need to set your camera to save files in its own camera raw file format.

    RGB Color model

    RGB Color model assigns intensity value to each pixel. In 8‑bits-per-channel images, the intensity values range from 0 (black) to 255 (white) for each of the RGB (red, green, blue) components in a color image. For example, a bright red color might have a higher Red value, lower Green and Blue value. When all R, G, B values are equal the result is white and when they are all 0 produces pure black. Although RGB is a standard color model, the exact range of colors represented can vary, depending on the application or display device.

    CMYK Color model CMYK model assigns a Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black percentages of ink colors. Over printing of these colors prints are produced.

    The lightest colors are assigned small percentages of ink colors and the darker colors assigned higher percentage. A bright red might contain 2% cyan, 93% magenta, 90% yellow, and 0% black. In CMYK images, pure white is generated when all four components have values of 0%. CMYK model is used for image to be printed using process colors.

    Converting an RGB image into CMYK creates a color separation. It’s best to edit first in RGB and then convert to CMYK at the end of your process.

    Lab Color mode
    The CIE L*a*b* color model (Lab) is based on the human perception of color. The numeric values in Lab describe all the colors that a person with normal vision sees. Because Lab describes how a color looks rather than how much of a particular colorant is needed for a device (such as a monitor, desktop printer, or digital camera) to produce colors, Lab is considered to be a device-independent color model.

    Duotone model Duotone mode creates monotone, duotone (two-color), tritone (three-color), and quadtone (four-color) grayscale images using one to four custom inks.

    Bitmap model Bitmap mode uses one of two color values (black or white) to represent the pixels in an image. Images in Bitmap mode are called bitmapped 1‑bit images because they have a bit depth of 1.

    Indexed Color modelIndexed Color mode produces 8‑bit image files with up to 256 colors.
    Multichannel mode

    Multichannel mode images contain 256 levels of gray in each channel and are useful for specialized printing.

    You can convert between different color models which permanently change the color values in the image. As a result, some image data may be lost. Hence do as much editing as possible in the original image mode and save a backup copy with layers before converting.

    Flatten the file before converting it. The interaction of colors between layer blending modes changes when the mode changes.

    Web‑safe colors
    The web‑safe colors are the 216 colors used by browsers regardless of the platform.

    Printer resolution
    Measured in ink dots per inch, also known as dpi. Generally, the more dots per inch, the finer the printed output you’ll get. Most inkjet printers have a resolution of approximately 720 to 2880 dpi. (Technically, inkjet printers produce a microscopic spray of ink, not actual dots like imagesetters or laser printers.)

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    Drawing a Lion Mascot in Photo Shop

    Learn step by step how to draw this lion mascot in Photoshop. This tutorial will cover the basics such as using the Pen and selection tools to create the outline, painting, and shading.

    Producing a Video : Things to learn

    A Story
    Think of each episode of your story and scenes, people and places.
    All good stories elements called 5 W's ;


    Additionally, there are some general terms called protagonist, antagonist, plot, setting, turning point, dialog, introduction, conclusion, narration, and points of view.

    The hero or good guy generally in conflict with the antagonist.

    The villain or adversary, generally in conflict with the Protagonist.

    There are two main components for laying out your story - a storyboard and the script.

    Story board is a sketch of what you will produce. It also help you and the team to understand the intended message what you plan to communicate. Creating the script and the storyboard is your starting act of a production. It accompanies information regarding dialog, setting, and or transitions. The strength of the storyboard lies in it ability to give a visual of what the scene should look like

    A storyboard is has  a timeline and shows what the scene will look like.

    A script is like a book. Good for dialog intense works. It indicates who is speaking, or what reaction the character should have and descrbes place, time and events in words.

    The combines storyboard and script methods allows you to refine story. Once completed turn the storyboard in to a script. The final script will provide the detail required for the actual production. It will also allow rehearse acting.

    Lighting can convey emotion and create different moods. It can make a character appear evil or show contrast. 

    Using lights
    cameras are very similar to our eyes, but they are much better at grasping different color temperatures than eye. Mixing indoor light and natural sunlight will make colors look unnatural. The problem is that your camera can only white balance to one temperature or type of light at a time. To avoid this, close shades or shoot with your back towards the window. It's best to stay away from windows.

    Three point lighting
    By using three different points of light (key, fill, and back) you can create pleasing results. The key light provides the main lighting on your subject. It is usually placed above and slightly by the side of your subject. The fill light will generally be a smaller light placed adjacent to the key light, and slightly below the subject. The back light is used behind the subject to help create a sense of space and depth.

    Single single light can create very hard shadows. Use more than one light source to diffuse the light and to avoid hard shadows. If you get direct light in your subject it can be too bright and may cause the rest of your picture to look dark.

    Video Terms

    The background sounds present at the location at which you are shooting.

    Aspect Ratio
    A ratio of height to width of a viewable video screen. The aspect Ratio for a standard TV is 3:4. New standards such as HDTV are being introduced that have an Aspect Ratio of 3:5.

    Audio Meter
    Measures the intensity of the sound. Usually quantified in decibels (dB). Meters with all lights lit or 'in the red,' are likely to produce distortion and very loud levels.

    Back Light
    Light used on the background or from behind the foreground subject. It's primary function is to separate the subject from the background, thereby creating a sense of depth.

    The color information of a video picture.

    Chroma Key
    A video effect that replaces a (background) color (usually blue or green) with another video source.

    Diffused Light
    Produced by bouncing or diffusing light. This allows the light to spread more evenly, reducing hard shadows.

    Fill Light
    Used to soften shadows and illuminate darker areas. The fill light is usually placed slightly below and to the side of the subject. Typically used in conjunction with a key and back lights as part of three point lighting. For more on lighting see the lighting section.

    A complete picture or snapshot of video appearing as a still image. Frames occur approximately 30 times per second. When successive frames are played back at this rate the still images are not seen as still images, but rather blend together creating the illusion of motion.

    Incandescent light
    Light produced from man made sources such as florescent, or filament based lights. They emit cooler color temperatures than natural light. The lower color temperature causes a greater amounts of red to be present in incandescent light.

    Key Light
    The principal or primarily light used in illuminating the main subject or scene. The key light is generally placed slightly above the subject to mimic natural light. Typically used in conjunction with a fill and back light as part of three point lighting. For more on lighting see the lighting section.

    Electronically removing part of a picture or video and then replacing or filling that section with another picture or video. Most commonly used when adding or keying titles or graphics over video.

    Natural light (outdoor light)
    Light produced by the sun or other natural sources. Produces a higher color temperature then incandescent light (artificial/indoor light). The higher color temperature causes a greater amount blues to be present in natural light.

    Any unwanted video audio such as snow, hiss, or buzz, that generally results from equipment malfunctions, poor production practices, or other environmental factors.

    PanningMoving the camera angle on the horizontal axis left or right. It is similar to looking left and right when you turn your head.

    Amount of video information on a screen measured in lines and pixels. The more lines and pixel information the sharper the video image will appear.

    Rule of Thirds
    A guideline for composing or framing shots. The rule suggests that by dividing the screen in thirds vertically and horizontally, and framing the main parts of the subject along those lines will create a sense of depth. To see an example of the Rule of Thirds click here.


    A generous term referring to actors or the 'in-front of camera' personnel.

    Three-Point Lighting
    Basic lighting approach incorporating three lights; key, back, and fill. Proper use of this technique will result in even and natural illumination providing a sense of depth between the subject and the background.

    Time Code
    A standard of Synchronization created by SMPTE, which records a specific number on to each frame of video. Time code allows for frame accurate edits. To see an example of time code click here.

    Narration generally added during post-production. A person speaking dialog that aids in storytelling and or helps to explains the video portion of the program.

    White BalanceA camera adjustment which compensates for different light and color temperatures to provide accurate color information during recording. White balance is set automatically by some cameras or manually by aiming at white object and then white balancing. To an see example of video that was not properly white balanced click here.

    Camera Shots : Photography and Video

    CU - Extreme Closeup

    The extreme close up is used to show very small details. (Horror : Eyes, Mouth, Insect, Time, Phone Rings)

    CU - Close Up
    The close up shot is used to reveal detail. (Head and shoulders, News Broadcast, Discussion, Show expressions and Lip Moves)

    BS- Bust Shot
    Shows subject above the knees to head.

    MS - Medium Shot
    The medium shot is from just below the waist to above the head. Uses to show hand movements.

    MLS - Medium Long Shot
    Remember in this shot to not cut ther person off at the knees. With this shot, you can still see expression on the persons face, while getting more information from what is going on around the person.

    LS - Long Shot
    This shot is useful for someone that is walking or moving.

    ELS - Extra Long Shot
    Also known as the Establishing shot, this gives the viewer some perspective as to where the subject is.

    2 Shot
    Two-shots are composed when two people are in the scene and their interaction is important. A two-shot is a good way to introduce a conversation. You might cut an over the shoulder shot of one person talking or a close-up of the other person reacting to what is being said.

    OS - Over Shoulder
    The over the shoulder shot reveals one subject as seen from over the shoulder of another subject. A view of the subject as seen from the second person's eyes. Used in conversations of two people

    Vertical Shot

    Photography Basics

    Focus Point
    The place with sharpest focus on the subject.

    This is the adjustment of the lens opening, measured as f-number (f4.5 f5.0).
    controls the amount of light passing through the lens.
    Aperture also has an effect on depth of field and diffraction. Thhe higher the f-number, the smaller the opening and less light pass through making greater depth of field.

    Shutter speed
    This is the adjustment of the speed of the shutter to control the amount of time of exposure.
    Shutter speed controls the amount of light striking the image plane. Faster shutter speeds decreases both the amount of light and the amount of image blurring from motion.

    White balance
    On digital cameras, electronic compensation for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions, ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. On mechanical, film-based cameras, this function is served by the operator's choice of film stock or with color correction filters. White balancing of a blue object provides a warm color temperature.

    Measurement of exposure so that highlights and shadows are exposed according to the photographer's wishes. Many modern cameras meter and set exposure automatically. Before automatic exposure, correct exposure was accomplished with the use of a separate light metering device. Translates the amount of light into a usable aperture and shutter speed, the meter needs to adjust for the sensitivity of the film or sensor to light. This is done by setting the "film speed" or ISO sensitivity into the meter.

    ISO speed
    Tells the camera the film speed of the selected film on film cameras, ISO speeds are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the system's gain from light to numerical output and to control the automatic exposure system. The higher the ISO number the greater the film sensitivity to light, whereas with a lower ISO number, the film is less sensitive to light. A correct combination of ISO speed, aperture, and shutter speed leads to an image that is neither too dark nor too light, hence it is 'correctly exposed,' indicated by a centered meter.

    Autofocus point
    On some cameras, the selection of a point in the imaging frame upon which the auto-focus system will attempt to focus. Many Single-lens reflex cameras (SLR) feature multiple auto-focus points in the viewfinder.

    Red Eye
    A red or blue color gets into eye when flash is close to the lense. This happens when light illuminates eye ball.
    Use bounce off flash or keep flash away from camera.


    Birds eye angle
    Looks directly down, mostly used as an establishing angle and an extreme long shot

    camera (lense) zooms in/out from subject

    High angle
    Looks down on subject. Makes the charater look weak and vulnerable.

    Eye Level angle
    Camera is is on the same level as the subject  and most common angle used

    Low angle
    This looks up on a subject which makes chracter strong and  powerfull

    Camera Shorts (also used in video)

    June 2, 2011

    Web Safe Color Pallete

    Color Hex Values

    Below is the 216 WebSafe color palette; Click on one of the colors to view its Hexadecimal value.
    Alternatively, you can enter a Hexadecimal value manually, and view its color equivalent.